Why are the area and productivity in the Central Highlands low? 17-07-2012

Cashew trees, which are considered "poverty alleviation" of many localities in the Central Highlands. Thanks to growing that many households, especially ethnic minorities (ethnic minority) overcome poverty rising affluent. But in the past five years, due to many reasons, the productivity of continuous decline, the price fluctuating cashew growers make things very difficult in the Central Highlands.


Productivity, low quality

Nguyen Van Dung family in Dak R'La commune, Dak Min District, Dak Nong province is one of the households that grow up through the years. But recently, he has cut away to switch to 2.5 ha of rubber plantation, coffee. Mr Dung said: "Before the new settlers in the locality, the soil should I buy about planting trees. In a long time, plants that grow better, yield higher average 2 , 5 tons of seed / ha, grain prices high so that also helped my family overcome difficulties in the early days to settle. However, the only plant that experience, just what is grown mainly purchase should be as similar floating gardens of the poor development of insects, many low-yield and price uncertainty later ... So I decided to cut out the entire orchard to grow rubber , coffee. "

But his family Nguyen Hung Huy, in the village 3, Dak Lao commune, Dak Min district planted three hectares of things, but now he has moved over into the coffee plantation. Exchange ideas with us, Mr. Huy said: "In recent years, the yield continued to decline, from three tonnes / ha down to 1.5 tons and as of last year earned only a few weights. Cause due to the aging plant, insect growth, very low percentage of fruit set. Besides, the market price of cashew nuts is not stable and continue to fall, so I moved the whole area under cultivation to growing coffee higher value. " Not only his family Dung, Huy, but also many other families in the district of Dak Min, has cut out most of their gardens to grow coffee, rubber, cocoa. According to the DPC Dak Min from this place more than 5150 ha, this is about 2,500 ha.

R'Lap Dak District and localities largest area under cultivation Dak Nong province with more than 7,000 ha. When practiced in a period of "golden age", many farmers economy quite rapidly, in rural areas appear increasingly built permanent houses spacious, newer bikes have value tens of million. At that time, for many farmers to plant trees that not only is "poverty alleviation" but also the enrichment plant. What luck he ran this family in carbon Bu Tung, Quang Tin ha planted this year, from 2007 and earlier thanks to favorable weather conditions, less disease so his average annual income of 14 tons of cashew nuts. Cashew prices at that time also relatively high family incomes between 350 and 400 million / year, excluding any interest costs and revenues are more than 300 million. Through the trees, his family escaped poverty to become a wealthier households in the locality. However, continuity in recent years when the plant entered the period of the cotton then encounter frost and unseasonal rain which become black cotton, gradually wither and fall, making a very low yield. What luck for him to know: "If, as before, the productivity gains of 2.5 to 3 tonnes / ha / crop is now reduced to a ton, maybe even years only get a few weights. Price of seed recent years also decreased, revenue is not enough to offset the cost of fertilizers and pesticides as well as care, forced me to cut out more than half of the orchard to grow other crops to stabilize their lives. "

Deputy Director of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD) Dak District R'Lap Pham Quang Vuong said: Since most farmers, especially ethnic minority cashew experience is primary, but not know how to apply scientific school - from seed selection techniques, care and disease prevention as well as lack of capital investment ... that many poor quality orchard. In addition, the market price of cashew nuts unstable, have to drop too strong, while the price of fertilizer materials, pesticides, tending to rise as growers of heavy losses, many farmers People were cutting down the orchard to grow coffee, rubber, pepper ... drag the crop area of ​​the district dropped to about 6,000 ha.


Reduced area under cultivation

Gia Lai province is about 20 thousand hectares of cashew, concentrated in the Krong Pa, Kong Chro, Ia Grai ... Particularly with Krong Pa, since 2001, Gia Lai province has decided to invest 29 billion VND on regional planning projects with materials of an area of ​​10,000 ha, providing 10,000 tons of crude annually for processing plants of exports, mainly processing plants that export of Long Son Joint Stock Company (Ho Chi Minh City). However, most should be planted from seed does not yield much higher area that was old, same old accounting rate to 63%, partly because the low price and output instability caused the plants next to impossible competition with other crops. Mr. Kpa Sailing, Director of Gia Lai Department of Agriculture and Rural Development said: "The biggest challenge now is because this tree is grown mainly on feet so little gray seed investment, intensive process, so energy rate was only 3 to 4 kg / ha. low price of cashew nuts that people have to tear down trees to replace the other crops of higher economic value. "

As reported by the Department of Agriculture and Rural Development Krong Pa district, the area of ​​the district is only about 4597 ha, concentrated in villages Uar, Ia Rsai, Chu Rcam. Just over 45% compared to the objectives set out projects. Le Thi Tuyet, a farmer in the commune of Chu reflects Drang: "Do the low yield of crops, many farmers fall into debt are forced to cutting down trees to sell firewood used for drying tobacco from 15,000 VND to 20,000 VND / tree. Exchange ideas with us on this issue, Mr. Dinh Xuan Coast, Head of Agriculture and Rural Development Krong Pa said: "Currently, only social Uar is keep the area the relatively large (930 ha), but many households here are also not "indifferent to" do things with trees. "


Planning the orchard

The survey showed that local plants are at risk of narrowing the area in most major growing areas. The Central Highlands of only about 83,900 ha (20,700 ha lower than that of 2010, of which about 50,000 ha of old). Under these circumstances, to improve productivity and keep the area stable trees in the area, last time Dak Nong Department of Agriculture and Rural Development outlined several specific solutions, practical, such as to plan the plant area articles on the province in 2015. On that basis, directing the Department of Agriculture and Rural districts advise the same level People's Committee plans to support farmers to convert this old area of ​​trees or other growing areas of inappropriate and inefficient to growing other crops, while farmers and guide improvement of the gardens had to keep the area stable. Choice, providing quality seed plants, especially some varieties planted in the effective area such as strains of the first, like DH66, DH67, Bo1 ... and gradually replace the same old. To increase investment, improve planting techniques, care, rehabilitation gardens, pest control suitable ecological conditions in the locality, especially in the weather conditions there are many variables such as current .

According to the 2015 plan Gia Lai province will have 25 thousand hectares with production estimated that 14 thousand tons. To plant the sustainable development, PPC also is directing the local organizations to reassess the situation tree, to find solutions for breeding, encourage and create favorable conditions for plants, facilities contract buy things for farmers. Also, to help farmers grow this profitable and restricted the cutting down of trees to grow other crops, Center for experimental studies of irrigation agriculture, forestry Gia Lai is also conducting research "applications use preparations that increase productivity "in the three districts of key plant (Kong Chro, Krong Pa, Ia Grai) of Gia Lai province to help build technical solutions to improve productivity, quality and development sustainability of local trees.

According to the Vietnam Cashew Association (Vinacas), the total output of the South East region, Central Highlands and southern central coast for six months was only 330 thousand tons. Currently, production of crude only 50% meet the processing needs, the remaining 50% must be imported from abroad. In this situation, Vinacas recommendations, local authorities and the authorities must do the material planning, technical help farmers better seed selection, planting it in a sustainable manner. In addition, businesses must also further improve processing quality and ensure food safety and hygiene of workers, promoting attention to develop the domestic market ... new hope that the trees grow back.

Source Baomoi


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